Real estate law

Property appraisal in Italy

Estate valuation of personal property: the principles in Italy

Anyone who has ever envisioned owning property in Italy has discovered that there are many options available. Once a property has been decided upon, a common concern for prospective buyers is how to stay within their maximum budget and enter into an offer confident that the property value is accurate. How does a prospective buyer get honest and precise property evaluation for Italian real estate? Is there a structured system for property appraisals and what tools are available to estimate the cost and value of Italian property? How do you obtain information to determine the actual property cost in Italy and what are the crucial variables?

Home appraisal vs inspection: what are the differences?

A home appraisal and a home inspection are two different things, each serving a distinct purpose in the home buying process in Italy.

Real estate licensed appraisers

A home appraisal is an evaluation of the value of a property, typically performed by a licensed appraiser (perito immobiliare). Most of the time, in the Italian context the appraiser is a figure paid by the bank/financial service in charge of lending the mortgage. The property appraiser will assess the property’s condition, size, location, compliance to laws and regulations, and other important factors useful to determine its market value. This valuation is used by lenders to determine how much they are willing to lend for a mortgage loan and by buyers to help determine if the price of the property is reasonable.

The real estate appraiser goal is to appraise real estate, land, and property in general, providing a detailed report. To maintain its independence, the appraiser operates as a freelancer, and not as a bank employee. Requirements of a real estate appraiser ​​include a minimum of three years’ experience in the real estate industry, with demonstrated proficiency in surveying, knowledge of the current real estate market and cadastral system, fundamental understanding of economics, environmental certification, proficiency in urban planning, expertise in real estate taxation, and familiarity with finance.

Home inspectors

On the other hand, a home inspection is a detailed examination of the physical condition of a property, typically performed by a licensed inspector. The inspection is aimed at looking for irregularities and un-condoned changes in the property that make it unmarketable. The inspector will evaluate the major systems and components of the home, including the foundation, roof, plumbing, electrical, and HVAC systems, among others. The inspector will provide a report detailing any issues or defects that may need to be addressed, which can help inform the buyer’s decision to purchase the property and negotiate repairs or credits with the seller.

In summary, a home appraisal is focused on determining the market value of a property, while a home inspection is focused on evaluating the physical condition of a property. While both are important in the home buying process, they serve different purposes and provide different information to the buyer and lender.

Property valuation Italy

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What are 3 methods of appraising a property?

Apart from the standard banks’ procedures, there are several methods used to have a standard property evaluation. Here we focus on three common approaches:

  • Sales Comparison Approach: This method involves comparing the property being appraised to similar properties that have recently sold in the same area. The appraiser will look at factors such as size, location, condition, and amenities to determine a fair market value for the property.
  • Cost Approach: This method involves estimating the cost of rebuilding the property from scratch, taking into account factors such as the cost of materials, labor, and land. This method is typically used for new or custom-built properties and is less commonly used for older homes.
  • Income Approach: This method is commonly used to appraise commercial properties, such as apartment buildings or office complexes. It involves estimating the income that the property could generate and applying a capitalization rate to determine the property’s value.

Property evaluation checklist: how to make a property appraisal in Italy in 4 steps

Evaluating a fair price for a property in Italy can be difficult since all the parameters can vary depending on many factors. However, below is a quick list of parameters a foreign buyer needs to take into account when approaching the purchase of a premise in Italy.

1. Identify the market value

Market value is a representation of the price at which a property would be sold on the open market. In this case, the price is given by a balance between market supply and demand based on the valuation date.

The market value is different from the cadastral value and takes into consideration the characteristics of the property (technical or economic).

To calculate the market value, it is necessary to multiply the commercial area of the property by the square meter listing and its coefficients of merit.

An incorrect estimate of the value of the property, may lead to setting a price of the home too high and lengthen the time of sale. On the other hand, in the case where the price is too low, the risk is to sell quickly at too low a price and not make enough money from the home.

Knowing the calculation methodology will also enable you to relate more nimbly to a professional and understand his or her valuation of the property more accurately.

2. Calculate the different property’s elements

The commercial floor area of the property includes all covered floor areas, weighted floor areas (such as terraces and balconies), and percentage shares of appurtenant floor areas.

Covered floor area must be included in percentage shares within the calculation:

  • the net usable floor area must be included at 100%.
  • perimeter walls of the property should be calculated at 100% up to a maximum of 50 cm;
  • perimeter walls in common should be calculated at 50% up to a maximum thickness of 25 cm;
  • for the attic it will be necessary to take into account only 75% of the area if it has a minimum height of 240 cm and otherwise only 35% up to 150 cm;
  • for lofts the principle of 240 cm always applies, and in the case where it is higher 80% of the surface will be counted, and 15% in case it is not actually habitable;
  • for verandas 80% of the area is counted in the case of finishes similar to the main rooms and 60% without finishes similar to the main rooms;
  • for taverns and habitable basements, 60% of the surface area will be taken into account for a minimum average height of 240 cm.
Property AreaCalculation Method
Net Usable Floor AreaFull calculation
Perimeter walls up to 50 cm thicknessFull calculation
Perimeter walls shared with other properties up to 25 cm thickness50% calculation
Attics with minimum height of 240 cm75% calculation
Attics up to 150 cm35% calculation
Lofts with minimum height of 240 cm80% calculation
Lofts not actually habitable15% calculation
Verandas finished similarly to main rooms80% calculation
Verandas without similar finishes60% calculation
Habitable basements and cellars with average height of at least 240 cm60% calculation

The second category relates to ornamental surfaces, which are:

  • balconies and solar terraces;
  • terraces and loggias;
  • porches and patios;
  • courtyards and courtyards;
  • gardens and areas belonging to “apartment” or “villas and cottages.
  • The third category concerns the areas of accessory rooms and parking lots:
  • cellars, attics and accessory rooms;
  • technical rooms;
  • Garages;
  • covered and uncovered parking spaces.

3. Define the value per square meter

The value per square meter takes into account several factors such as geographical location (city and neighborhood), the condition of the building and their state of preservation.

The Internal Revenue Service is the agency that monitors these factors through the OMI (Real Estate Market Observatory) with data updated semi-annually.

Real estate listings are estimates related to the commercial value of the property, and the listings are divided by territorial zones. These quotations provide minimum and maximum market values, rental values, and have a distinction by property type and state of preservation.

4. Identify the coefficients of merit

Coefficients of merit are the last variable to be considered. These coefficients can increase or decrease the home’s listing.

Floor

The first type of coefficients are those by floor. The coefficients are as follows:

  • basement floor (-25% regardless of whether there is an elevator or not);
    ground floor or mezza
  • nine (-10% if there is a garden and -20% without);
  • second floor (-10% regardless of whether there is an elevator);
  • second floor (-3% with elevator and -15% without elevator);
  • third floor (0% with elevator and -20% without elevator);
  • upper floors (+5% with elevator and -30% without elevator);
  • top floor (+10% with elevator and -30% without elevator);
  • penthouse (+205% with elevator and -20% without elevator).

State of the property

A second type of coefficient concerns the state of the property. Rental status provides for vacant dwellings a 100% coefficient, for rented dwellings the coefficient is reduced by -20%, and in the case of seasonal rentals the coefficient is -5%.

Age of the property

The age of the property plays a central role because it may need renovation if too old. The coefficients for rental status are:

  • in need of renovation (-10%);
  • in good condition (0%);
  • renovated dwelling (+5%);
  • finely renovated (+10%);
  • new construction (+10%).

Heating System

An additional coefficient concerns the provision of a heating system. In the case of being self-contained (+5%), centralized (0%), centralized with metering (+2%) and absent (-5%)

Exposure and View

The last coefficient to take into account is exposure and view.
For panoramic exterior view (+10%), exterior (+5%), interior (-5%) and completely interior (-10%).

property appraisal Italy

Cortina D’Ampezzo, photo by Raquel Pereira on Unsplash.

Location

One of the most decisive variables determining a property’s value is location, location, location! Everyone knows that in real estate the location of your ideal home or property will greatly influence its value. As in the rest of the world, property values in Italy vary significantly between cities and regions, and between the metropolitan areas, countryside, mountains, and coasts.
In general, real estate prices are markedly higher in predominant Italian cities than in smaller towns and countrysides. However there are many small towns and villages where the prices are always rising… Forte dei Marmi, Cortina d’Ampezzo, Portofino, Fiesole are just a few examples.

In these cities, the market flow is more flexible and renting is often easier and more affordable than buying. A healthier job market, access to better services and amenities, a larger number of attractions, and a perceived better quality of life draw people to the cities and drive up the prices of properties. The more expensive cities such as Milan, Rome, Venice, Florence, and Turin experience a continuous flow of affluent Italians and international investors and home buyers.
In the southern part of the country, with the exception of tourist destinations such as Salento and the Amalfi Coast, property values are considerably lower. The year-round mild climate and the charming white-washed villages can’t overcome the challenging economical situation and lack of abundant services available in the south. Hence, you can get more for your money in these regions.

Why do you need an Italian real estate attorney to make the appraisal of a property you are interested in?

If you are looking to purchase or sell a property in Italy, one of the key factors to consider is the appraisal process. An appraisal is a crucial step in determining the value of a property, and it can have a significant impact on the final sale price. In Italy, it is highly recommended to have an Italian real estate attorney to make the appraisal of an Italian property. In this article, we will discuss the reasons why it is important to have a real estate attorney for this process.

A) Local Knowledge and Experience

An Italian real estate attorney has the local knowledge and experience necessary to accurately appraise Italian properties. They have an in-depth understanding of Italian real estate laws and regulations, as well as the local market trends and conditions. They can use this knowledge to assess the value of a property based on its location, size, condition, and other relevant factors.

B) Impartiality

A real estate attorney can provide an objective and impartial appraisal of a property. They are not influenced by any personal or financial interests in the property and can provide an unbiased opinion on its value. This is important, especially in cases where there may be disputes over the value of the property.

C) Documentation and Due Diligence

A real estate attorney can ensure that all the necessary documentation and due diligence are completed for the appraisal process. They can review the property title and any other legal documents related to the property to ensure that there are no liens or other legal issues that could affect the appraisal. They can also conduct a thorough inspection of the property to identify any potential issues that could affect its value.

D) Negotiation

If you are purchasing or selling a property, a real estate attorney can help negotiate the sale price based on the appraisal results. They can use their knowledge and experience to advocate for a fair and reasonable price for the property. Unfortunately, we have heard of many occasions where non-residents have paid over the odds for a property, simply because they were not Italian. Another important point to note is that we can get to the crux of the sale, what are the reasons and we can understand very well how far to negotiate. It is a common conversation with our foreign clients who worry about offending the seller by negotiating too hard! This is what we are here for, to get you the best price possible.

E) Protection

Having an Italian real estate attorney involved in the appraisal process can help protect you from any potential legal issues that may arise. They can ensure that all legal requirements and regulations are met during the appraisal process, and they can advise you on any legal implications of the appraisal results.

In conclusion, the appraisal process is a crucial step in determining the value of a property in Italy. Having an Italian real estate attorney involved in this process can provide you with the local knowledge and expertise necessary to accurately assess the value of the property. They can provide an impartial opinion, ensure that all necessary documentation and due diligence are completed, help negotiate the sale price, and protect you from any potential legal issues. Investing in an Italian real estate attorney for the appraisal process is a worthwhile investment that can save you time, money, and potential legal issues in the long run.

Italian real estate market trends: find out the forecast for 2023-2024 and 2025

Housing market trends have changed over the past few decades, with greater availability of homes and rentals thanks to the economic revival after the global financial crisis.
The number of homes sold in Italy has increased since last year, but still has not recovered to the level seen before the 2008/2009 recession. A further increase in sales and valuations for homes is expected in 2023.

2023 forecast: housing market trends

Italy is experiencing a new interest regarding

Italians have done well to buy houses in recent years, because forecasts on the development of the real estate market in Italy indicate that in 2025-2026 the value of an apartment is expected to triple. This means that a simple one bedroom house should cost more or less 300,000 euros and a two-rooms apartment up to 500,000 euros. That’s why this is the time to buy.

The increase in house prices is estimated for 2023, due to the scarcity of new homes for sale. The Italian housing market is growing strongly and is expected to continue to grow until 2026. For this reason, it is estimated that in the coming year the supply of houses will fall and thus cost more.

The number of new construction is decreasing and currently the Italian population is not being supported by new housing construction, at least not quantitatively as would be necessary to maintain the ratio of demand to supply at the current level (between a 10-15%).

Houses cost more and more in Italy. According to Istat, in 2022 real estate prices grew by 3.8 percent, continuing in the wake of 2021’s increases, in line with general inflation.

On average last year, prices of new housing show an increase of 6.1 percent and those of existing housing grow by 3.4 percent. Istat points out, however, that compared to the average in 2010, the first year for which the Ipab historical series is available, housing prices in 2022 decreased by 9.5 percent (14.2 percent increase for new housing and 17.1 percent decrease for existing housing).

The cost of housing in Italy continues to rise!

According to preliminary estimates, in the fourth quarter of last year, the index of house prices (HICP) purchased by households, whether for housing or investment purposes, remained unchanged from the previous quarter and increased by 2.8 percent against the same period in 2021 (it was up 2.9 percent in the third quarter of 2022).

For the institute, the trend growth in HIPAB is due to both new housing prices (up 4.6 percent, accelerating from the 2.9 percent advance in the previous quarter) and existing housing prices, which are up 2.4 percent, decelerating slightly from the third quarter of 2022 (was up 2.9 percent).

These trends, Istat adds, occur against a backdrop of slowing buying and selling volumes (down 2.1 percent in the fourth quarter of 2022, according to the Internal Revenue Service’s Real Estate Market Observatory for the residential sector, after a 1.6 percent increase in the previous quarter).

Where property prices are rising the most in Italy?

On a cyclical basis, the stability of the Ipab is the result of opposite dynamics: on the one hand, new housing prices are rising (up 2.7 percent), while, on the other hand, existing housing prices are falling ( down 0.6 percent).

Price growth in the fourth quarter is particularly strong in the North (up 3.4 percent in the Northwest and 4.2 percent in the Northeast) and more restrained in the Center and the South and Islands (up 1.9 percent and 0.6 percent, respectively) where, however, the highest trend change in the country (up 7.8 percent) is recorded for new housing.

Positive growth rates in housing prices are recorded for all cities for which the index is disseminated, and in particular the trend-based acceleration in house prices in Turin, Rome and Milan is consolidated. In particular, in Milan, housing prices increase on a year-on-year basis by 6.4 percent, accelerating from the previous quarter (it was +5.6 percent); this is followed by Turin, where growth stands at 3.9 percent, decelerating from 6.1 percent in the previous quarter; while in Rome there is a trend increase of 2.8 percent, with a sharp slowdown for new housing (from a progress of 6.4 percent to one of 1.1 percent).

Houses, price boom: when is it worth buying a property in Italy? 2023? 2024?

Whether or not it will be worthwhile to buy a house in 2023 or in 2024 will need to see the trend of inflation, which is deflating, but slowly. If the downward trend is still slow, prices will not fall much. At the end of the year, according to the OECD, the consumer price index is expected to fall from 8.7 percent in 2022, to 6.7 percent and then to 2.5 percent in 2024. It will then be just a year from now that there could be significantly cheaper prices than now to buy real estate.

Other factors

Other factors that determine the current value of a property are the size and condition of the property, and its ‘legal use’ allocation. A property can be classified as habitation, office, shop, or other use. The property’s value will vary according to the designated use. In general, properties classified as “civil habitations” are more expensive. There are some instances where Italian legislation allows owners to change the property’s designated use classification.

OUR SERVICES
It is imperative that buyers obtain an unbiased, professional valuation of a home or property before making an offer or purchasing. We are a team of experienced and informed real estate agents, developers, surveyors, architects, and real estate managers here to assist you in every step of the way. We have professional knowledge of standing legislation and rules and an insider’s take on the real estate market. We will guide you in understanding how the appraisal process works in Italy, facilitate obtaining an accurate property valuation, and provide the prospective buyer with a detailed analysis of the evaluation given the location, condition, rental potential and other factors. We can develop a specific business plan illustrating future rent profits for rentals targeted at the tourist and international student market. We can provide prospective landlords with discerning advice on renovations and furnishings by suggesting innovative solutions sure to please Italian and international tenants.

Properties classification in Italy

Group A

A / 1: stately homes.

The difference between properties comprised in the A/1 cadastral category and residential homes is determined by their location (in prestigious areas), and the high degree of finishing

A / 2: civil dwellings.

These are residential properties, where the vast majority of the population lives

A / 3: economic housing.

Housing units built with low cost materials and finishes. They have a lower cadastral income, as well as a lower purchase price than homes that fall within class A / 2

A / 4: popular housing.

Even lower level than economic properties, both in terms of finishing and construction features. No A/4 type houses are built in Italy nowadays. 

A / 5: ultra-popular housing.

The land registry gives the definition of “realities outside the minimum indispensable standards”. Through the note from the Ministry of Finance dated 4 May 1994 (C1 / 1022/94), classes A / 5 and A / 6 have been canceled

A / 6: rural dwellings.

Properties for agricultural activities (suppressed by the decree of the Ministry of Finance together with class A / 5)

A / 7: houses in small villas.

Buildings corresponding to civilian homes but with the addition of outdoor areas for exclusive use

A / 8: houses in villas.

Properties with finishes and construction features superior to the ordinary, a very large surface area of ​​the main areas and presence of park and / or garden

A / 9: castles, palaces of outstanding historical or artistic merit.

These buildings are characterized by a distribution of volumes and internal spaces that is different from all the other properties classified in the land registry

A / 10: studios and private offices.

Housing units intended for professional activities. These include insurance agencies, analysis laboratories and those used by dental technicians

A / 11: accommodation and houses typical of the places.

The classic example of properties classified with category A / 11 is represented by the high altitude hut, but there are also trulli and the mountain huts themselves

Group B

B / 1: colleges, orphanages, convents, seminaries, shelters, hospices, barracks.

The cadastral category B / 1 includes all those non-profit structures used for assistance for the elderly (hospices), for the education of minors (colleges, orphanages), for the spiritual preparation of young seminarians (seminaries), for the hospitality of the community of a mendicant order (convents), housing and the activity of the armed forces (barracks)

B / 2: non-profit hospitals and nursing homes.

They are public hospitalization and care facilities, therefore non-profit

B / 3: reformers and prisons.

The cadastral class B / 3 includes prisons for adults and minors

B / 4: public offices.

By public offices we mean the INPS offices, the offices of the Revenue Agency and the territorial offices of the Chamber of Commerce

B / 5: scientific laboratories and schools.

They are buildings built to host activities such as scientific research and education.

B / 6: academies, galleries, museums, art galleries, libraries.

Provided that they are not inside prestigious buildings and castles belonging to category A / 9). All the aforementioned non-profit cultural venues fall into the cadastral category B / 6

B / 7: oratories and chapels not intended for public worship.

Buildings built to practice religion (not in public)

B / 8: underground warehouses for food storage.

All warehouses arranged at a lower level than the ground floor whose function is to collect stocks

Group C

C / 1: commercial premises.

The properties identified by the cadastral category C / 1 deal with the sale of products, such as shops and shops

C / 2: storage rooms and warehouses.

Structures used as evacuation rooms, storage of goods and attics

C / 3: workshops for arts and crafts.

Unlike commercial premises, buildings of cadastral class C / 3 are not intended for the sale of products, but for their creation or transformation by the craftsmen

C / 4: premises and buildings for non-profit sporting establishments.

All private facilities where you train or where a sporting event is staged

C / 5: non-profit healing and bathing water establishments.

Like category C / 4, these are private establishments

C / 6: non-profit garages, sheds, stables and stables.

Structures such as garages, parking spaces or car boxes, but also stables and stables

C / 7: open or closed canopies.

Any structure associated with a gazebo or canopy

Group D

D / 1: Mills.

The factories are the factories, the warehouses, where the raw material is processed and transformed into a product non ho capito

D / 2: for-profit hotels.

Hotels, hotels and other accommodation facilities where tourists stay for a fee

D / 3: halls for shows and concerts, cinemas and theaters for profit.

Plants where one or more artists perform in front of a paying audience

D / 4: for-profit hospitals and nursing homes.

Private hospitalization and treatment facilities, where medical services are offered for a fee

D / 5: insurance, exchange or credit institutions for profit.

The cadastral category D / 5 identifies banks and private insurance companies

D / 6: premises and buildings for profit-making sports establishments.

Stadiums, sports halls, swimming pools and all sports facilities where the public has access by paying a ticket

D / 7: buildings built or adapted for the special needs of an industrial activity and not susceptible to different destination without radical transformations.

Structures created specifically to carry out a specific activity, such as refueling stations

D / 8: buildings set up or adapted for the special needs of a commercial activity and not susceptible to a different destination without radical transformations.

Shopping centers are included in class D / 8

D / 9: suspended or floating buildings secured to fixed points on the ground, private toll bridges.

Buildings, constructions that do not have their own land

D / 10: rural buildings.

This category includes all the old buildings outside the urban area

Group E

E / 1: stations for air, sea, land and transport services.

Airports, ports and railway stations belong to cadastral class E / 1

E / 2: municipal and provincial toll bridges.

All public bridges for which each driver is required to pay a fixed fee

E / 3: buildings and constructions for special public needs.

Facilities such as kiosks and newsstands that sell newspapers fall into the category

E / 4: closed enclosures for special public needs.

The enclosures that delimit an area where, for example, a public grocery market is held

E / 5: buildings constituting fortifications and their dependencies.

These buildings are permanently exempt from the payment of the IMU, like all the other structures present in Group E

E / 6: towers, traffic lights and lighthouses to make the municipal clock for public use.

The same applies to the structures of the cadastral category E / 6, permanent exemption from the payment of the IMU

E / 7: buildings intended for the public exercise of worship.

In cadastral class E / 7 there are religious buildings such as cathedrals and churches, inside which masses and other religious functions are celebrated

E / 8: buildings and buildings in cemeteries, excluding sepulchres, columbarias and family tombs.

Structures for which the exemption from the single municipal tax applies

E / 9: special purpose buildings not included in the previous categories of group E.

Group F

F / 1: urban areas.

All areas located on the ground floor of buildings stacked in the urban area fall into the cadastral category F / 1

F / 2: collaborating units.

Unusable structures, for which accessibility is not granted

F / 3: unit under construction.

Properties that have not been finished.

F / 4: unit being defined.

Compared to the buildings of the cadastral class F / 3 the difference is subtle but important. This category includes properties for which neither the intended use nor the size has been established

F / 5: flat roofs.

Flat roofs are, for example, terraces or free areas located above buildings and are part of the common parts of an apartment building.

F / 6: building awaiting declaration.

Any building for which the registration request has not yet been submitted

F / 7: infrastructures of public communications networks.

The cadastral category F / 7 identifies all those structures built by telecommunication companies for public networks (see broadband)

The contents of this page should not be taken as an authoritative statement of Italian law and practice. Neither the author nor the publisher are responsible for the results of actions taken on the basis of information contained in this summary, nor for any errors or omissions. This text is not intended to render legal, accounting or tax advice. Readers are encouraged to seek professional advice concerning specific matters before making any decision.

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