Immigration Law

Trustee for Private Between Different Countries

In the realm of international transactions and asset management, the role of a trustee for private trusts between different countries is crucial. A private trust is established for a specific individual. Unlike a public trust, private trusts are not established for the benefit of the general public.


To understand the role of a trustee, you must know exactly what a trust is and what it is used for. In essence, a trust is an agreement between the trustee and the beneficiary, with the trustee managing assets for the beneficiary. The assets managed in the trust can vary, but most often include cash or property.

Role of a Trustee

When discussing trusts between different countries, the duties of a trustee go beyond asset management. Serving as a fiduciary, the trustee must perform the following duties:

  • Loyalty: It is important for the trustee to remain loyal to the beneficiaries. They must also comply with the rules outlined in the trust document. In addition, it is essential for the beneficiaries’ best interests to be prioritized, rather than the personal interest of the trustee.
  • Prudence: Prudence ensures that the trustee must be diligent and careful when making judgements. Decisions should be informed by considering objectives, risk management, and time deadlines. Trustees must additionally consider any unique cases and the needs of the beneficiaries.
  • Impartiality: It is essential that trustees remain impartial when making decisions surrounding a trust. All beneficiaries should be treated as equals, with no one being discriminated against.

It is important to note that the specific procedures and legal requirements for debt collection may vary by jurisdiction, so it is advisable to seek legal counsel or consult local laws and regulations when dealing with debt collection.

Private Trustee

The private trustee is one of the most common trustees you will encounter. Compared to other types of trustees, a private trustee will be more understanding to your needs. In addition, they can provide a great amount of expertise in the field, while leveraging their relationships with professionals of other fields, like accountants or attorneys. As a private trustee, they also tend to have more flexibility, avoiding the bureaucracy faced by large corporations.

private trustee

Types of Trusts

Bare trust

Also known as a simple trust, a bare trust is a trust in which the trustee holds legal title to the assets. However, the beneficiary has the rights to the income and the capital of the trust. The trustee plays an administrative role, and the beneficiary gives them instructions. An example of a bare trust would be when a parent co-signs a mortgage for a child, and they go on the title.

Possession trust

In a possession trust, the trustee has the legal ownership of the trust assets, although the beneficiary can possess and enjoy the use of the assets. The trustee does not have as much control as they would in a bare trust. Typically, possession trusts are used when the beneficiary has specific rights for use. A life interest trust is an example of a possession trust.

Discretionary trust

A discretionary trust allows the trustee to have flexibility when distributing income and capital to beneficiaries. The trustee is given discretion to determine how assets are allocated, unlike in a bare or possession trust. This type of trust tends to be used in estate planning and asset protection. A specific example of a discretionary trust would be a parent establishing a trust to provide for the children, but without giving the children full access to the assets.

Mixed trust

As the name suggests, a mixed trust combines various types of trusts. This allows specific needs of an agreement to be met through customization. For example, diverse or complicated legal considerations, family dynamics, or financial objectives can be achieved with this customized solution.

Private Trustees in Real Estate

In the realm of real estate, the trustee is responsible to hold the legal title of a property while the trustor is paying off their mortgage.

Trustee Sale

What is a trustee sale? When a trustee auctions off a property in order to make up the outstanding debt that the borrower owes, it is known as a trustee sale. You may see a trustee sale when dealing with transactions related to mortgage. The trustee must remain fair and transparent during the auction. In addition, they must use the earnings to recover the debt.

Trustee’s Deed

Also called a deed of trust, the trustee’s deed conveys the title to real property from the trustee to the beneficiary in the form of a legal document. It tangibly proves the transfer of ownership, detailing the terms of the trust. The deed of trust represents an agreement between the trustor and the beneficiary to leave the title to the trustee until the mortgage is paid.

Irrevocable Trust Trustee

In real estate, irrevocable trusts are fairly common. An irrevocable trust is appealing in real estate because you can minimize estate taxes on valuable properties and protect your assets. Trustees have specific responsibilities regarding irrevocable trusts. Since the trust is irrevocable, the trustee must comply with the strict guidelines set. This requires careful management to ensure they are not breaking any of the provisions that are protected from modification.

Duties of a Trustee of an Irrevocable Trust

With the strict guidelines in place, a trustee of an irrevocable trust has many responsibilities to maintain proper management. The trustee must carefully invest trust assets while also perpetuating correct records and following legal and tax regulations. 

Trustee Deed vs. Warranty Deed

Both a trustee deed and a warranty deed are utilized in real estate. They both serve the purpose of transferring property. Executed by the trustee, a trustee deed is the document that outlines the property held in the trust, signifying an agreement between the trustor and the beneficiary. A warranty deed serves to transfer ownership of property from one party to another. It guarantees warranties and assurances about the title being transferred, ensuring higher protection than other deeds.

Trusts Between Different Countries

Private trusts and trustees between multiple countries are used for different purposes, including estate planning, tax optimization, and asset management. These trust agreements go beyond country borders, so they must take many factors into account.

Establishing an International Trust

If you want to hold assets in a country different from where you live, you can establish an international trust. The trust will be subject to the laws of the country in which the asset is in, and it can involve people from multiple countries. 

Appointing Trustees

Like any other trustee, trustees of international trusts can be almost any individual. The trustee will be responsible for making decisions surrounding the trust and managing the trust in the best interest of the beneficiaries.

Cross-Border Management

The trustee may be located in a different country than the assets that they are responsible to manage, but they still must do their due diligence to be familiar with the laws and regulations in the country of the asset. 


Trustees must comply with the tax regulations and do their best to minimize the amount of taxes paid by the beneficiary. With different tax laws for different jurisdictions, the trustee must plan accordingly and implement efficient tax strategies.


Trustees must remain informed of the laws of the jurisdiction in which the trust lies. It is important to stay keen on legislation changes to ensure they are acting in compliance with trust regulations, financial laws, and any relevant laws.


Communication is crucial when managing a trust between different countries. It is essential for the trustee to keep an open line of communication between beneficiaries, stakeholders, trustees, and professionals in other jurisdictions to administer the trust effectively. 

ILF – Italy Law Firms: Your Trusted Partner for Personal Trustee Services in Italy

When it comes to protecting your personal assets and ensuring your wishes are carried out, having a trustworthy and experienced trustee partner is essential. At ILF – Italy Law Firms, we specialize in providing comprehensive trustee services tailored specifically for private individuals and families with assets and interest in Italy or throughout Europe.

With over 20 years of experience serving international clients, we understand the unique challenges and complexities that come with managing personal trusts, funds and estates in Italy. Our dedicated team of legal professionals has in-depth knowledge of Italian trust and estate laws, allowing us to navigate the intricate legal landscape with ease. From trust creation and administration to estate planning and wealth management, we provide a one-stop solution for all your trustee needs.

What sets us apart is our unwavering commitment to confidentiality, and meticulous attention to detail. We work closely with you to understand your unique circumstances and tailor our services accordingly, ensuring that your best interests are always our top priority.

Choose ILF – Italy Law Firms as your trusted trustee partner, and experience the peace of mind that comes with knowing your personal assets and legacy are in capable hands. Contact us today to learn more about our trustee services and how we can assist you in securing your future in Italy.

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